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Monday, June 1, 2009

Kedukan Bukit Inscription

Among the inscription inscription-the Kingdom of Sriwijaya, Hill inscription Kedukan be discussed most interesting. In addition to the many words that do not contain easily be deciphered, the inscription is considered by some scholars the key to solving the location of the capital of the kingdom, which dominated the international shipping and trade for four centuries. In terms of linguistics, is an inscription Kedukan Bukit any posts Malay-Indonesian oldest ever found until now




Based on the story, in the area of Kedukan Bukit, Palembang, there are ancient stone with the letter of trusted people. If the race was held spur bidar boat on the Musi River, the boat will be used in the first tambatkan on the rock with the hope to obtain victory. In November 1920, a controller Batenburg Netherlands recognize it as a stone inscription. The findings are reported in the immediate Oudheidkundigen Dienst (Office of ancients). Finally, the inscription is stored in the Museum of Central Jakarta with the number D.146. In the year also, Resident Palembang L.C. Westenenk find another inscription in the Talang Tuwo. Inscription in the Museum Center is numbered D.145. Then the second inscription was translated by ditranskripsikan and Philippus Samuel van Ronkel in writings, "A Preliminary Notice Concerning Two Inscriptions in Old Malay Palembang", in the scientific magazine, Acta Orientalia, Volume II, 1924, hh. 12-21.

Contents Prasasti

Kedukan Bukit inscription dates ber 604 Saka (682 M) and the inscription numbered years the oldest in Indonesia. Consists of ten lines, written in letters and Pallawa Ancient Malay language, each line reads as follows:

1. Swasti, sri. Sakawarsatita 604 ekadasi su-
2. klapaksa wulan Waisakha Dapunta Hyang naik di
3. samwau mangalap siddhayatra. Di saptami suklapaksa
4. wulan Jyestha Dapunta Hyang marlapas dari Minanga
5. tamwan mamawa yang wala dua laksa dangan kosa
6. dua ratus cara di samwau, dangan jalan sariwu
7. telu ratus sapulu dua wanyaknya, datang di Mukha Upang
8. sukhacitta. Di pancami suklapaksa wulan Asada
9. laghu mudita datang marwuat wanua .....
10. Sriwijaya jayasiddhayatra subhiksa

Translation in modern indonesia :
1. Bahagia, sukses. Tahun Saka berlalu 604 hari kesebelas
2. paroterang bulan Waisaka Dapunta Hyang naik di
3. perahu melakukan perjalanan. Di hari ketujuh paroterang
4. bulan Jesta Dapunta Hyang berlepas dari Minanga
5. tambahan membawa balatentara dua laksa dengan perbekalan
6. dua ratus koli di perahu, dengan berjalan seribu
7. tiga ratus dua belas banyaknya, datang di Muka Upang
8. sukacita. Di hari kelima paroterang bulan Asada
9. lega gembira datang membuat wanua .....
10. Perjalanan jaya Sriwijaya berlangsung sempurna

Bukit inscription Kedukan decipher jayasiddhayatra (jaya travel) from the ruler of the Kingdom of Sriwijaya Dapunta title Hyang (Yang Hyang Dipertuan). Because Dapunta Hyang brought tens of thousands of soldiers with supplies, the trip is certainly not a picnic, but a military expedition conquered an area. From the inscription Kedukan Hill, we have the data:

1. Hyang Dapunta boat on 11 Waisaka 604 (23 April 682). There is no description of the boat and would like to where.
2. Hyang Dapunta depart from Minanga 7 Jesta (19 May) with more than 20,000 troops. Entourage arrived at the Front ago Upang (until now still have the edge in the village Upang the Musi River, east of Jakarta).
3. Hyang Dapunta create 'wanua' 5 Asada (16 June).
(Adjustments to the Saka era in the Christian era taken from Louis-Charles Damais, "etude d'Epigraphie Indonesienne III: Liste des Principales Datees de l'Australie", BEFEO, Tome 46, 1952).

Bukit inscription Kedukan only the degree Dapunta Hyang without the king's name. In the inscription Tuwo Talang be chiselled year 606 Saka (684 M) mentioned that the king of Sriwijaya Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa decree making Sriksetra Park on 2 Caitra 606 (23 March 684). Most likely he meant that the king of Sriwijaya in Kedukan Bukit inscription.

Batch question arises: Where Minanga location? Really Minanga Sriwijaya kingdom is the central, regional, or only taklukan Sriwijaya? What does the sentence 'marwuat wanua'? Is the sentence states that a city such as the development of many history experts? Is the event was the making of the capital or the capital of Sriwijaya movement? Thus Kedukan Bukit inscription contain many issues that are not simple. "This text has caused much ink to flow" said Prof.. Dr. George Coedes in his book, The Indianized States of Southeast Asia, University of Malaya Press, Kuala Lumpur, 1968, p. 82.

Some General

In 1975 the Ministry of P and K in six volumes published book History of the National Australia set the standard for the book as history lessons in schools. Volume II discusses Zaman Kuna, prepared by Ayatrohaedi, Edi Sedyawati, Edhie Wuryantoro, Hasan Djafar, Soan Nio Oei, K. Soekarto Atmojo and Suyatmi Satari, the editor Bambang Sumadio. Interpretation of their contents Kedukan Hill inscription is as follows: Hyang Dapunta start of the trip Minanga Tamwan, and establish a city that is named Sriwijaya. Maybe once the center is located in Sriwijaya Minanga Tamwan of that, the meeting rivers Kampar Kampar Left and Right (Indonesian National History, II, Balai Pustaka, Jakarta, 1977, p. 53).

Dr. Buchari, epigraphy leading experts, in the writings "An Old Malay Inscription of Srivijaya at Palas Pasemah (South Lampung)," Pre-Seminar Sriwijaya Research, Research Center National archeology and heritage, Jakarta, 1979, hh. 26-28, gives a different interpretation: Initially based in the Kingdom of Sriwijaya Minanga located in Batang Kuantan, on the edge Inderagiri River, with the reason minanga mouth = = = kuala Kuantan. Then in the year 682 Dapunta Hyang attack and make the city of Palembang, which was then used as the new capital of his kingdom. So in the year 682 there's transfer of the capital of Sriwijaya Minanga to Palembang.





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